Purpose of the flight and payload description
The LPMA instrument (Limb Profile Monitor of the Atmosphere) is a high spectral resolution Fourier transform spectrometer operating in absorption against the sun. The objective is to record limb atmospheric spectra in selected intervals from the thermal infrared to the near-infrared.
The instrument is composed by a commercial BOMEM DA2 spectrometer customized for balloon operations. A specially designed two detectors output optics enables to cover simultaneously two spectral regions making it possible to sample simultaneously the two interferograms detected during the same scan of the moving mirror and allowing to collect information on atmospheric species absorbing in widely different spectral regions.
In order to reach a good signal to noise ratio spectra performance, the interferometer must be feeded with a stable solar beam exactly aligned along the optical axis of the instrument. To be able to do this, two sub-systems of the gondola are needed:
- a primary pointing system initially developed by the Observatory of Geneva for astronomical payloads, controling the azimuth of the gondola and maintaining the sun in the field of view of the instrument even during ascent in the dense layers of the upper troposphere or lower stratosphere where this is a rather difficult achievement.
- a suntracker (also known as a heliostat) developed in cooperation with the Institut d'Electronique el de Micro-electronique du Nord performing the fine pointing of the acquisition mirror through 2 axes servo-controlled gimbal compensating for the residual motions of the payload and maintaining a jitter of the solar beam direction at the input of the interferometer of less than 1 arc min.
In addition it is possible to accomodate on the gondola another instrument of the class 30-50 kg wich can benefit from their good pointing capabilities.
In this flight also was part of the scientific payload onboard the gondola the DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) consisting of 2 light intake telescopes for simultaneous Nadir and scanning Limb observations (the latter being mounted on an automated elevation scanner). The incoming light is conducted into two Ocean Optics USB-2000 spectrometers which are mounted into an evacuated and thermo-stated housing and controlled by a single board computer for data handling and storage. The instrument was created to help in the validation of the SCHIAMACHY instrument onboard ENVISAT.
Finally was also included a reduced (lightweight) of DOAS called micro-DOAS and the Univerity of Denver's Cold Atmospheric Emission Spectral Radiometer (CAESR), a cryogenically cooled medium resolution grating spectral radiometer recording atmospheric thermal emission in the direction opposite to the sun.
Details of the balloon flight
Balloon launched on: 3/23/2003
Launch site: European Space Range, Kiruna, Sweden
Balloon launched by: Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES)
Balloon manufacturer/size/composition: Zero Pressure Balloon model 150z Zodiac - 150.000 m3
End of flight (L for landing time, W for last contact, otherwise termination time): 3/??/2003
Landing site: 60 km E of Rovaniemi, Finland
- LPMA project website Laboratoire de Physique Moléculaire pour l'Atmosphère et l'Astrophysique (via Archive.Org)
- Stratospheric Research Group University of Heidelberg
- Analysis of Stratospheric Bromine Monoxide from SCIAMACHY using Comparison with Model Results Thesis by Ninad V. Sheode, Universitat Bremen, 2006
- Balloon-borne limb profiling of UV/vis skylight radiances, O3, NO2 and BrO: technical set-up and validation of the method Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 1409-1422, 2005
- Balloon-borne stratospheric BrO measurements: comparison with Envisat/SCIAMACHY BrO limb profiles Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 2483-2501, 2006
- ENVISAT Validation Results Obtained with LPMA and IASI-Balloon FTIR 2nd Workshop on the Atmospheric Chemistry Validation of ENVISAT, 2004
- Inter-comparison of stratospheric O3 and NO2 abundances retrieved from balloon borne direct sun observations and Envisat/SCIAMACHY limb measurements Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 1293-1314, 2006
- Investigation of Inorganic Stratospheric Bromine using Balloon-Borne DOAS Measurements and Model Simulations Doctoral Dissertation by Marcel Dorf, University of Heidelberg (2005)
- Le Vol LPMA 20 at CNES Nacelles Pointees website (CNES)
- List of balloons launched from ESRANGE SSC Space website (via Archive.Org)
- MIPAS Ozone Validation by Stratospheric Balloon and Aircraft Measurements 2nd Workshop on the Atmospheric Chemistry Validation of ENVISAT, 2004
- Overview of SCIAMACHY validation: 2002-2004 Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 127-148, 2006
- The UV-A and visible solar irradiance spectrum: inter-comparison of absolutely calibrated, spectrally medium resolution solar irradiance spectra from balloon- and satellite-borne measurements Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 1879-1890, 2005
- The Validation of the Envisat Chemistry Instruments by Use of Stratospheric Balloons and Aircraft ENVISAT Validation Workshop (ESA SP-531). 9-13 December, Frascati, Italy
- Validation of MIPAS N2O Profiles by Stratospheric Balloon, Aircraft and Ground Based Measurements 2nd Workshop on the Atmospheric Chemistry Validation of ENVISAT, 2004
- Validation of MIPAS Temperature Profiles by Stratospheric Balloon and Aircraft Measurements 2nd Workshop on the Atmospheric Chemistry Validation of ENVISAT, 2004
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